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SCHEME OF TEACHING AND EXAMINATION
M. Tech. structural engineering
ELECTIVE - III ELECTIVE - IV
08CSE321 - Composite and Smart Materials 08CSE331 - Special Concrete
08CSE322 - Masonry Structures 08CSE332 - Soft Computing Tools
08CSE323 - Design of Concrete Bridges 08CSE333 - Stability of Analysis of Structures
Introduction to optimization, engineering applications of optimization, Formulation of structural optimization problems as programming problems.
Classical optimization techniques, single variable optimization, multivariable optimization with no constraints, unconstrained minimization techniques and algorithms constrained optimization solutions by penalty function techniques, Lagrange multipliers techniques and feasibility techniques.
Linear programming, standard form of linear programming, geometry of linear programming problems, solution of a system of linear simultaneous equations, pivotal production of general systems of equations, simplex algorithms, revised simpler methods, duality in linear programming.
Non-linear programming, one dimensional minimization methods, elimination methods, Fibonacci method, golden section method, interpolation methods, quadratic and cubic methods, Unconstrained optimization methods, direct search methods, random search methods, descent methods, constrained optimization techniques such as direct methods, the complex methods, cutting plane method, exterior penalty function methods for structural engineering problems.
Geometric programming, conversion of NLP as a sequence of LP/ geometric programming.
Dynamic programming conversion of NLP as a sequence of LP/ Dynamic programming.
Formulation and solution of structural optimization problems by different techniques.
1. Spunt, “Optimum Structural Design”- Prentice Hall
2. S.S. Rao, “Optimization – Theory and Practice”- Wiley Eastern Ltd.
3. Uri Krisch, “Optimum Structural Design”- McGraw Hill
4. Richard Bronson, “Operation Research”- Schaum’s Outline Series
5. Bhavikatti S.S.- “Structural optimization using sequential linear programming”- Vikas publishing house.
ELECTIVE - III
COMPOSITE AND SMART – MATERIALS
Introduction to Composite materials, classifications and applications. Anisotropic elasticity – unidirectional and anisotropic laminae, thermo – mechanical properties, micro – mechanical analysis, characterization tests. Classical composite lamination theory, cross and angle – play laminaes, symmetric, antisymmetric and general symmetric laminates, mechanical coupling. Analysis of simple laminated structural elements ply-stress and strain, lamina failure theories – first fly failure, vibration and buckling analysis. Sandwich structure face and core materials, secondary failure modes environmental effects, manufacturing of composites.
smart materials and structures – piezoelectric materials – coupled electromechanical constitutive relations – depoling and coercive field – field – strain relation – hysterics – creep – strain rate effects – manufacturing.
Actuators and sensors:
single and dual actuators – pure extension, pure bending – bending extension relations – uniform strain beam model – symmetric induced strain actuators – bond shearing force – Bernoulli Euler (BE) beam model – embedded actuators – Assymetric induced strain actuators in uniform strain and Euler – Bernoulli models. Uniform strain model – energy principle formulation – BE model – single and dual surface bonded actuators – Extension – bending and torsion model.
Introductions to control systems:
Open loop and close loop transfer functions – stability criteria – deflection control of beam like structures – using piezoelectric sensors and actuators – shape memory alloys.
1. Robart M.Jones, “Mechanical of Composite Materials”- McGraw Hill Publishing Co.
2. Bhagwan D Agarvalm, and Lawrence J Brutman, “Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites”- John Willy and Sons.
3. Crawley, E and de Luis, J., “Use of Piezoelectric actuators as elements of intelligent structures”- AIAA Journal, Vol.25, No.10, Oct 1987, PP 1373-1385.
4. Crawley, E and Anderson, E., “Detailed models of Piezoceramic actuation of beams” - Proc. of the 30th AIAA/ASME/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC – Structural dynamics and material conference, AIAA, Washington DC, April 1989.
Introduction, Masonry units, materials and types:
History of masonry Characteristics of Brick, stone, clay block, concrete block, stabilized mud block masonry units – strength, modulus of elasticity and water absorption. Masonry materials – Classification and properties of mortars, selection of mortars.
Strength of Masonry in Compression:
Behaviour of Masonry under compression, strength and elastic properties, influence of masonry unit and mortar characteristics, effect of masonry unit height on compressive strength, influence of masonry bonding patterns on strength, prediction of strength of masonry in Indian context, failure theories of masonry under compression. Effects of slenderness and eccentricity, effect of rate of absorption, effect of curing, effect of ageing, workmanship on compressive strength
Flexural and shear bond, flexural strength and shear strength:
Bond between masonry unit and mortar, tests for determining flexural and shear bond strengths, factors affecting bond strength, effect of bond strength on compressive strength, orthotropic strength properties of masonry in flexure, shear strength of masonry, test procedures for evaluating flexural and shear strength.
Permissible compressive stress, stress reduction and shape reduction factors, increase in permissible stresses for eccentric vertical and lateral loads, permissible tensile and shear stresses.
Design of load bearing masonry buildings:
Permissible compressive stress, stress reduction and shape reduction factors, increase in permissible stresses for eccentric vertical and lateral loads, permissible tensile and shear stresses, Effective height of walls and columns, opening in walls, effective length, effective thickness, slenderness ratio, eccentricity, load dispersion, arching action, lintels; Wall carrying axial load, eccentric load with different eccentricity ratios, wall with openings, freestanding wall; Design of load bearing masonry for buildings up to 3 to 8 storeys using BIS codal provisions.
Earthquake resistant masonry buildings:
Behaviour of masonry during earthquakes, concepts and design procedure for earthquake resistant masonry, BIS codal provisions
Masonry arches, domes and vaults:
Components and classification of masonry arches, domes and vaults, historical buildings, construction procedure
1. Hendry A.W., “Structural masonry”- Macmillan Education Ltd., 2nd edition
2. Sinha B.P & Davis S.R., “Design of Masonry structures”- E & FN Spon
3. Dayaratnam P, “Brick and Reinforced Brick Structures”- Oxford & IBH
4. Curtin, “Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Masonry”- Thomas Telford
5. Sven Sahlin, “Structural Masonry”-Prentice Hall
6. Jagadish K S, Venkatarama Reddy B V and Nanjunda Rao K S, “Alternative Building Materials and Technologies”-New Age International, New Delhi & Bangalore
7. IS 1905, BIS, New Delhi.
8. SP20(S&T),New Delhi
DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGES
Introduction: Historical Developments, Site Selection for Bridges, Classification of Bridges Forces on Bridges
Bridge substructures: Abutments, piers and wingwalls
Box Culvert: Different Loading Cases IRC Class AA Tracked, Wheeled and Class A Loading, working out the worst combination of loading, Moment Distribution, Calculation of BM & SF, Structural Design of Slab Culvert, with Reinforcement Details
T Beam Bridge Slab Design: Proportioning of Components Analysis of interior Slab & Cantilever Slab Using IRC Class AA Tracked, Wheeled Class A Loading, Structural Design of Slab, with Reinforcement Detail
T Beam Bridge Cross Girder Design: Analysis of Cross Girder for Dead Load & Live Load Using IRC Class AA Tracked, Wheeled Class A Loading A Loads, Structural Design of Beam, with Reinforcement Detail
T Beam Bridge Main Girder Design: Analysis of Main Girder for Dead Load & Live Load Using IRC Class AA Tracked, Wheeled Class A Loading Using COURBON’S Method, Analysis of Main Girder Using HENDRY-JAEGER and MORICE-LITTLE Method for IRC Class AA Tracked vehicle only, BM & SF for different loads, Structural Design of Main Girder With Reinforcement Details
PSC Bridges: Introduction to Pre and Post Tensioning, Proportioning of Components, Analysis and Structural Design of Slab, Analysis of Main Girder using COURBON’s Method for IRC Class AA tracked vehicle, Calculation of pre-stressing force, cable profile and calculation of stresses, Design of End block and detailing of main girder
Balanced Cantilever Bridge: Introduction and proportioning of components, Design of simply supported portion and design of cantilever portion, design of articulation
ELECTIVE - IV
Components of modern concrete and developments in process and constituent materials : Role of constituents, Development in cements and cement replacement materials, pozzolona, fly ash, silica fume, rice husk ash, recycled aggregates , Ready Mixed Concrete
Light Weight concrete: Introduction, classification, properties, strength and durability, mix design and problems
High density concrete: Radiation shielding ability of concrete, materials for high density concrete, properties in fresh and hardened state, placement methods
Ferro cement: Ferrocement materials, mechanical properties, cracking of ferrocement, strength and behaviour in tension, compression and flexure, Design of ferrocement in tension, ferrocement constructions, durability, and applications
Fibre reinforced concrete: Fibre materials, mix content, distribution and orientation, interfacial bond, properties in fresh state, strength and behavior in tension, compression and flexure of steel fibre reinforced concrete, mechanical properties, crack arrest and toughening mechanism, applications
Admixtures, polymers, chemicals, super-plasticized concrete, polymer concrete, polymer impregnated concrete, accelerators, set retarders, corrosion inhibitors, adhesives and coatings
High strength concrete: constituents, mix proportioning, properties in fresh and hardened states, applications and limitations, high performance concrete, self compacting concrete, reactive powder concrete, bacterial concrete
SOFT COMPUTING TOOLS
Software Engineering: Introduction of software engineering – Application areas – Software design process – various design – representation techniques.
Top – down design, Bottom – up design – modular programming – structural programming – Conversion of non structured programs – Software testing – Software reliability and availability.
Object Oriented Programming: Comparison between procedure – oriented programming and object oriented programming, Advantages of OOP objects, Classes, Data encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism etc.
Application of OOP in Analysis and design of RC, PSC and steel structural elements.
Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence, Introduction, AI – Application fields, defining the problems – state space representation – problem characteristics – production system – production system characteristics.
Knowledge representation – Formal logic – predicate logic – logic programming – forward v/s backward reasoning – matching control knowledge. Search and control: Concepts – uniformed blind search: depth first search: depth first search – breadth first search – bi – directional search – informed search – heuristic graph search – generate and test – hill climbing – best first search AND Orgraph search. Non formal knowledge representation – semantic networks – frames – scripts – productions systems. Programming in LISP.
Expert Systems: Expert systems: Their superiority over conventional software – components of an expert system – expert system life cycle – expert system developments process – nature of expert knowledge – techniques of soliciting and encoding expert knowledge. Inference: Forward chaining- backward chaining – rule value approach.
Uncertainty – symbolic reasoning under uncertainty: logic for non – monotonic reasoning. Statistical reasoning: Probability and Bayes theorem – certainty factor and rule based system – Bayesian network – Dempster – Shafer theory. Fuzzy reasoning. Features of rule based, netwoks based and frame based expert system – examples of expert systems in Construction Management and Structural Engg., Expert system shells. Neural Networks, An introduction – their possible applications in Civil Engg.,
1. M.L.Shooman, “Software Engineering”- McGraw Hill.
2. Richard Fairly, “Software Engineering Concepts”- McGraw Hill.
3. Timothy Budd, “An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming in Turbo C++”- Addison – Wesley Publications.
4. Rober Lafore, “Object Oriented Programming in Turbo C++”- Gelgotia Publishers.
5. Balaguruswamy, “Object Oriented Programming with C++”- TMH Publishing Company Ltd.
6. Patterson D W, “Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems”-Prentice Hall, New Jersy.
7. Rich, E and Knight K. “Artificial Intelligence”- TMH, New Delhi.
8. Rolston, D.W “Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems”- McGraw Hill, New York.
9. Nilson, N.J., “Principals of Artificial Intelligence”- Narosa, New Delhi.
10. Adeli, H., “Expert Systems in Constructions and Structural Engg”- Chapman & Hall, New York.
11. Elaine Rick and Keuin Knight, “Artificial intelligence”- Tata McGraw Hill Edition.
12. H.Adeli, “Expert system in structural design and construction”- Chapman and Hall, 1988.
13. Kostem, “Expert systems in Civil Engineering”- ASCE, 1987.
14. C.S.Krishnamoorthy and S Rajeev Computer Aided Design Narosa Publishing House.
STABILITY ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
Beam – column – Differential equation. Beam column subjected to (i) lateral concentrated load, (ii) several concentrated loads, (iii) continuous lateral load. Application of trigonometric series, Euler’s formulation using fourth order differential equation for pined – pined, fixed – fixed, fixed – free and fixed – pinned column.
Buckling of frames and continuous beams. Elastica. Energy method – Approximate calculation of critical loads for a cantilever. Exact critical load for hinged – hinged column using energy approach.
Buckling of bar on elastic foundation. Buckling of cantilever column under distributed loads. Determination of critical loads by successive approximation. Bars with varying cross section. Effect of shear force on critical load. Column subjected to non – conservative follower and pulsating forces.
Stability analysis by finite element approach – deviation of shape function for a two nodded Bernoulli – Euler beam element (lateral and translation of) – element stiffness and element geometric stiffness matrices – assembled stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for a discretised column with different boundary condition – calculation of critical loads for a discretised (two elements) column (both ends built in). Buckling of pin jointed frames (maximum of two active dof) – symmetrical single bay portal frame.
Lateral buckling of beams – differential equation – pure bending – cantilever beam with tip load – simply supported beam of I section subjected to central concentrated load. Pure Torsion of thin – walled bars of open cross section. Non – uniform Torsion of thin – walled bars of open cross section.
Expression for strain energy in plate bending with in plate forces (linear and non – linear). Buckling of simply supported rectangular plate – uniaxial load and biaxial load. Buckling of uniformly compressed rectangular plate simply supported along two opposite sides perpendicular to the direction of compression and having various edge condition along the other two sides.
1. Stephen P.Timoshenko, James M Gere, “Theory of Elastic Stability”-2nd Edition, McGraw – Hill, New Delhi.
2. Robert D Cook et.al, “Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis”-3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
3. S.Rajashekar, “Computations and Structural Mechanics”-Prentice – Hall, India.
4. Ray W Clough and J Penzien, “Dynamics of Structures” - 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New Delhi
5. H.Zeiglar, “Principles of Structural Stability”-Blaisdall Publications.